By Sascha W. Felix
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Extra info for Advances in shrimp aquaculture management
The higher the density of both the species being cultured and the organisms cultured for food, the greater the production of ammonia. Ammonia will eventually be converted to nitrate, but there is a danger that ammonia production will exceed the capacity of the pond to convert the ammonia rapidly enough to prevent it from exceeding toxic levels. Some species of planktonic algae such as Chlorella sp. Chaetoceros sp. etc. can utilize ammonia and nitrate directly. If these organisms are present in optimum levels the danger of ammonia build-up will be reduced.
Toxicity of oxidized fish oil can be neutralized by the addition of adequate levels of vitamins E and C. Levels of 100 to 150 ppm are commonly used in commercial fish and shrimp feeds. However, for salmon diets containing high levels of unsaturated fat (upto 35 per cent), levels of 350 ppm of vitamin E or more is used. , 1991), while a level of 300 meq/kg) significantly lowered the chemoluminescent response of head kidney phagocytes and increased mortality rates of the fish when challenged with Vibrio anguilirum.
0 in the presence of inorganic carbon, growth would be reduced to 60 percent. However, a drop in pH that is associated with a loss or rapid reduction of inorganic carbon, may be lethal. 4, and less than 10 to 12 mg/l of inorganic carbon, penaeid shrimps exhibit significant reduction in growth and lower survival. 0, heavy mortalities occurred (Wickens, 1976). A fall in pH may have indirect effects also, for instance, resistance of the shrimp to pathogens might be reduced. One of the most important causes of low water pH is acid soil.
Advances in shrimp aquaculture management by Sascha W. Felix