By Philip F. Gura
The First accomplished historical past of Transcendentalism
American Transcendentalism is a accomplished narrative heritage of America's first team of public intellectuals, the boys and girls who outlined American literature and indelibly marked American reform within the many years ahead of and following the the US Civil battle. Philip F. Gura masterfully strains their highbrow family tree to transatlantic spiritual and philosophical principles, illustrating how those trained the fierce neighborhood theological debates that, so frequently first in Massachusetts and finally all through the United States, gave upward thrust to sensible, own, and quixotic makes an attempt to enhance, even ideal the realm. The transcendentalists may painfully bifurcate over what will be attained and the way, one part epitomized by means of Ralph Waldo Emerson and stressing self-reliant individualism, the opposite through Orestes Brownson, George Ripley, and Theodore Parker, emphasizing dedication to the bigger social good.
By the 1850s, the uniquely American challenge of slavery dissolved changes as transcendentalists became ever extra completely to abolition. in addition to their early inheritance from eu Romanticism, America's transcendentalists deserted their curiosity ordinarily humanitarian reform. via war's finish, transcendentalism had turn into pointed out solely with Emersonian self-reliance, congruent with the nationwide ethos of political liberalism and marketplace capitalism.
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The epidemic was particularly deadly among the close living quarters of the Missouri Indians. Native medicine aggravated the problem. Indians treated a fever with a steam bath (each village had a permanent sweat lodge) and a plunge into a nearby stream. This was exactly the wrong thing to do with a body weakened by small pox, and it usually brought a quick death to the stricken patient. The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras lost an estimated two-thirds of their population in the epidemic. Under pressure from the Dakotas, the Arikaras abandoned their fortiﬁed cities and gathered in huddled settlements next to the Mandans and Hidatsas.
On the northern edge of this Missouri River–Red River complex European explorers would encounter roving bands of Cree and Assiniboine hunters, whose home villages lay in present-day Canada. To the west were the buffalo-hunting Crows, whose homes were in the valleys of the Powder and Big Horn Rivers of present-day Wyoming. And to the south lay the numerous and powerful Pawnee and Kiowa tribes of present-day Nebraska and Kansas. 18 lords of the northern plains Map 3. Location of Indian tribes of the northern plains, ca.
Anthony. By that date also the Oglalas and Brules had begun a trade with the Arikaras, whose own hunters ranged as far west as the Black Hills. The relationship was at ﬁrst friendly but soon turned deadly as a result of dramatic changes in the lives of the Plains Indians. The disruption was a by-product of Spanish settlement of the Gulf Coast and Mexico, a cultural intrusion that brought two new elements to life on the plains — the horse and a deadly small pox contagion. 30 lords of the northern plains Map 4.
American Transcendentalism: A History by Philip F. Gura