By Brenda A. Wilson
*Appears Retail*Discover the recommendations bacterial pathogens use to outlive and multiply.
Focuses on middle ideas in response to the starting to be realizing of the underlying similarities between pathogens and their mechanisms of motion, and is a instructed textual content for one-semester microbiology courses.
Presents the newest study to aid scholars discover the mechanisms during which bacterial pathogens reason infections in people and animals.
Includes new insurance of key findings at the mechanisms of bacterial secretion, pollutants, and rules.
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Extra resources for Bacterial Pathogenesis: a Molecular Approach
Langerhans cells belong to a class of cells called dendritic cells that process the invading bacteria and activate the immune cells of the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). Members of the skin microbiota normally do not cause human infections unless they are introduced into the body by abrasions, catheters, or surgery. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a common skin bacterium, has been implicated in postsurgical and catheterrelated infections. (S. ) Relatively nonpathogenic bacteria like S. epidermidis would normally be killed rapidly by the defenses of the bloodstream, but if they can reach an area that is somewhat protected from host defenses, such as the plastic surface of a heart valve implant, they can grow and produce quite serious infections.
Most mucosal surfaces are protected by a normal resident microbiota. Exceptions are the uterus and upper female genital tract and the urinary tract. The species compositions of the microbiota found at different parts of the body vary appreciably from one site to another. Nonetheless, all have in common the fact that gram-positive bacteria predominate. Shifts in these populations can be pathological, as is seen from diseases such as periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis. The large intestine (colon) harbors an abundant and rich assortment of normal microbiota, the majority (97%) of which are anaerobes or facultative anaerobes.
How complement and cytokines work together to direct the phagocytes and cytotoxic cells to an infected area and activate them in the process is described in detail below. Recently, chemokines have been in the news because of their relationship to susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chemokines and cytokines can act as messengers because the cells whose activities they direct have receptors that bind them and cause the cell to respond to them. The T cells (specifically, T helper cells) and macrophages that are the targets of HIV have a chemokine receptor, which cooperates with the main HIV receptor, CD4, to allow the virus to bind to these cells in such a way as to gain admission to them so that the virus can replicate.
Bacterial Pathogenesis: a Molecular Approach by Brenda A. Wilson