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Such mats may be formed from non-photosynthetic bacteria and their presence need not constrain the depositional environment to within the photic zone. E5 Protocardia morinica: Nicaniella extensa Association (19 samples, 2652 specimens, 24 species, 21 % average fragmentation, H = 1-30) A moderately diverse association found in the organic-rich shales of the lower scitulus and lower hudlestoni Zones (text-figs 7 and 8), where it alternates with subassociation E2d. Authigenic uranium values typically approach 3 ppm in these sediments.

Like all other Upper Kimmeridge Clay aerobic associations the diversity index of B2 is relatively low compared to the Lower Kimmeridge associations. Kilenyi (1978) has noted a similar diversity decline amongst ostracode populations culminating in the highly impoverished assemblages in the overlying Portlandian. Benthic oxygen levels do not appear to have been restrictive in these organic-poor 44 WIGNALL: KIMMERIDGE CLAY BENTHIC PALAEOECOLOGY rzu TUT B2 20 32. Trophic nuclei of associations Bl, the Liostrea multiformis: Parainoceramus cramei association from marly mudstones of the mid-pectinatus Zone, and of B2, the Mesosaccella cypris: Corbulomima suprajurensis association from similar lithologies in the upper pectinatus and pallasioides Zones.

The Lower Lydite Bed, a condensed phosphatic conglomerate, separates the Grit Sands from the overlying Hartwell Clay of the upper pallasioides Zone (Cope 1980). In the east of the region, around Wheatley and Brill, the upper Hartwell Clay appears to pass laterally into the Thame Sand (the Wheatley Sand of some authors, see Cope, 1978). Ballance (1963) mapped the distribution of this elongate sand body and showed it to have a north-west to south­ east orientation. The sand was suggested to have accumulated in an erosive channel (Ballance 1963, fig.

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Benthic palaeoecology of the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay of England by Paul Wignall

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