By Robert B. Gennis
New textbooks in any respect degrees of chemistry look with nice regularity. a few fields like simple biochemistry, natural response mechanisms, and chemical thermody namics are good represented through many glorious texts, and new or revised variants are released sufficiently frequently to take care of with growth in study. even though, a few components of chemistry, specifically a lot of these taught on the graduate point, be afflicted by a true loss of updated textbooks. the main severe wishes happen in fields which are speedily altering. Textbooks in those matters often must be written via scientists truly concerned about the study that is advancing the sphere. it's not frequently effortless to cajole such contributors to set time apart to assist unfold the information they've got amassed. Our objective, during this sequence, is to pinpoint components of chemistry the place contemporary development has outpaced what's lined in any on hand textbooks, after which hunt down and convince specialists in those fields to provide particularly concise yet instructive introductions to their fields. those should still serve the desires of 1 semester or one sector graduate classes in chemistry and biochemistry. at times, the provision of texts in lively learn parts can assist stimulate the construction of recent courses.
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Extra resources for Biomembranes: Molecular Structure and Function
10. Structures of membrane lipids, illustrating the variety of polar head groups. At neutral pH, the amino group of the ethanolamine moiety will be protonated. 5 Composition of Membranes 25 Glycerolipids (a) ) co 6 < H-6(1)-H <.. Sphingolipids (c) (b) ~ ~ 0 ~o 0 H-6(1)-H :. H I ) < C-H c11-H H-CII H-C > 2 '. 9. Stereochemical conventions for glycerolipids and sphingolipids. The R/S, D/ L, and sn nomenclatures are illustrated for the C(2) positions. Adapted from ref. 604. ~0'CH2 o ~ I o /cI:!. PHOSPHOLIPIDS 0- I CH 2 -O-P--OH II o 0 + -0-CH,-CH,-N(CH 3), -O-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2 -0-CH 2-CH-NH 2 I phosphatidic acid phosphatidylcholine phosphatidylethanolamine phosphatidylserine CO 2 OH I 1: -O-CH,-CH-CH,OH ~~~ phosphatidylglycerol phosphatidylinositol OH ~o ....
Differential scanning calorimetry is often used along with X-ray diffraction to define the phase boundaries of the lipid-water phase diagrams. These studies are usually performed at high lipid concentrations [>40% lipid (w/w)]; however, many of the structures which have been characterized at high lipid concentrations also exist in lipid dispersions in a large excess of water. 4. The major forms are I. Lamellar liquid crystalline phase (L): This form is what is usually thought of as representing the bulk of the lipids in the biological membrane.
However, it has been noted that in egg phosphatidylcholine, the average length of the sn-2 fatty acid is 18, whereas the average length of the sn-l fatty acid is 16 carbons. This may be in compensation for the configuration of the 2fatty acid, so that the two acyl chains extend about the same depth from the bilayer surface. In summary, there are five major features of the crystal structures which have importance for considering the structure of the lipid bilayers: 1. The structures observed are all lamellar, with the polar and nonpolar groups organized as in a bilayer.
Biomembranes: Molecular Structure and Function by Robert B. Gennis