By Carla L. Carleton
Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary seek advice scientific better half: Equine Theriogenology offers easy access to crucial info on universal recommendations and prerequisites in equine reproductive perform. a part of the preferred Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary seek advice sequence, this source builds at the copy part of Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary seek advice: Equine to provide improved theriogenology assurance with medical pictures. With info starting from man made insemination and fetal sexing to parentage checking out and vaccination courses, the publication bargains 158 equally formatted chapters to aid practitioners successfully deal with reproductive health and wellbeing within the mare and stallion and expectantly deal with fetal and neonatal sufferers.
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Extra resources for Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult Clinical Companion: Equine Theriogenology
Fetal reabsorption, maceration, mummiﬁcation, autolysis, death during delivery (stillbirth) or delivery of live fetus incapable of extrauterine survival. 36 SECTION 1: MARE Systems Affected ■ ■ Reproductive Other organ systems can be affected if there is maternal systemic disease. SIGNALMENT/HISTORY Risk Factors ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Often nonspeciﬁc Manipulations of the cervix or perforation of the placental barrier Previous history of twins or abortion Family history of twinning or noninfectious spontaneous abortion Breeds, including Thoroughbred, draft mares, Standardbreds and related breeds predisposed to double ovulations, which can lead to twinning Maiden or barren mares which are also prone to double ovulations and twinning Mares more than 15 years old, especially those with endometrial periglandular ﬁbrosis or endometriosis and, possibly, those with large numbers of endometrial cysts There are anecdotal reports of placental insufﬁciency in maiden American Miniature Horse mares Concurrent maternal disease Grazing endophyte-infected fescue pasture, ergotized grasses or grains, or plants producing phytoestrogens (anecdotal) late in gestation Exposure to xenobiotics Geographical location with respect to consumption of endophyte-infected fescue or ergotized grasses or grains Historical Findings One or more of the following: ■ Signs consistent with labor at an unexpected stage of gestation ■ Dystocia, birth of nonviable foal ■ Previous history of abortion, dystocia, or birth of a nonviable foal ■ Vaginal discharge, which is generally mucoid, hemorrhagic, or serosanguineous ■ Premature udder development; dripping milk ■ Anorexia or colic ■ Recent systemic disease ■ Moderate/severe endometritis or endometrial periglandular ﬁbrosis ■ Failure to deliver on expected due date ■ None or excessive abdominal distention consistent with stage of gestation ■ Behavioral estrus in pregnant mare, which might be normal for stage of gestation and is dependent on time of year and stage of pregnancy when the pregnancy is lost ■ Geographical location, especially with relation to endophyte-infected fescue pastures, hay, or ergotized grasses or grains ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS, NONINFECTIOUS 37 CLINICAL FEATURES ■ ■ ■ ■ Depends on the cause, time of fetal death, stage of gestation, duration of the condition, and whether the pregnancy ended in dystocia or with RFM.
Additional Prophylactic Steps ■ ■ ■ ■ Segregate pregnant mares from horses susceptible or exposed to infections. Isolate immunologically naïve individuals until immunity to enzootic infections is established or enhanced. Depending on the infectious agent, protection may only be accomplished postpartum. Limit transport of pregnant mares to exhibitions or competitions. Use appropriate biosecurity protocols and isolate aborting mares with proper disposal of contaminated fetal tissues. 30 ■ ■ ■ ■ SECTION 1: MARE Proper diagnostics to identify an infectious cause of abortion.
This page intentionally left blank chapter 1 Abnormal Estrus Intervals DEFINITION/OVERVIEW Estrus is the period of sexual receptivity by the mare for the stallion. Estrus is abnormal when overt sexual behavior is displayed for longer or shorter periods than is considered normal for the species or the individual. Abnormal interestrus intervals can result from short or long estrus or diestrus intervals. ETIOLOGY/PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The mare is seasonally polyestrous, with estrous cycles in spring and summer months.
Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult Clinical Companion: Equine Theriogenology by Carla L. Carleton