By Yitzhaq Feder
This pioneering examine examines using blood to purge the results of sin and impurity in Hittite and biblical ritual. the concept blood atones for sins holds a in demand position in either Jewish and Christian traditions. the writer lines this thought again to its earliest documentation within the fourteenth- and thirteenth-century B.C.E. texts from Hittite Anatolia, during which the smearing of blood is used as a way of expiation, purification, and consecration. This ceremony parallels, in either its method and objectives, the biblical sin delivering. the writer argues that this custom stems from a standard culture manifested in either cultures. furthermore, this booklet goals to decipher and elucidate the symbolism of the perform of blood smearing through looking to establish the sociocultural context within which the expiatory importance of blood originated. hence, it really is crucial analyzing for somebody drawn to the that means and efficacy of formality, the origins of Jewish and Christian notions of sin and atonement, and the foundation of the biblical blood ceremony.
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Additional resources for Blood Expiation in Hittite and Biblical Ritual: Origins, Context, and Meaning
The reading and reconstruction of the last three signs follows Mouton, “Le rituel de Walkui,” 86. Text: Lebrun, “Un rituel de Walkui,” 602–3. Cf. also Mouton’s transcription (“Le rituel de Walkui,” 86). the hurro-hittite zurki Rite 19 This ritual outlines the procedure for purification from the defilement that results from various forms of contact with cultically impure substances. The situations that require the performance of the ritual include the eating of pork or an urura plant in a dream.
Regarding 6:15, Milgrom argues for the secondary nature of Lev 6:12–18aα and attributes this passage to H (Leviticus, 396; Leviticus 2:1343). Lev 16:32 is part of the H addition to Lev 16 (see Knohl, Sanctuary of Silence, 27–29; on Num 35, see pp. 99–100).
By comparing the other instances of these rites in the Expansion Ritual, we observe that they take place immediately after the evocation of the goddess and her absorption into an object. Here, the uliḫi that contains her presence is united with her cult statue; hence, we would think to perform the blood and praise rites. This answer brings us to the second question: why do they not take place? Apparently, the ritual postpones the rites until the point when the other uliḫi, which was brought from the old temple, is also united with the cult statue.
Blood Expiation in Hittite and Biblical Ritual: Origins, Context, and Meaning by Yitzhaq Feder