By Andrew Blann, Nessar Ahmed
This publication is approved by way of the Institute of Biomedical technology and written by means of its specialist writers, a lot of whom paintings at the Institute’s advisory panels.
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This sequence provides stories overlaying all features of haemodynamics and haemorheology. issues coated comprise the complexities of microcirculation, the rheology of blood and blood vessels, and the mechanics of blood stream in arteries and veins. The contributions target to mirror the advances being made in experimental options and instrumentation for laboratory and medical measurements and in numerical and mathematical modelling.
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Changes in this sequence can give rise to genes that generate a different protein; an example of this is normal haemoglobin and sickle haemoglobin. The ability to detect differences in genes has been a crucial step forward in Translocations Diseases caused by this process develop as a result of two different sections of DNA being brought together, and so a new section of DNA is created that codes for a new gene. For example, on one chromosome a ‘nonsense’ DNA sequence may ‘spell’ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ãunfortu 1 Introduction to Blood Science whilst another section of DNA on a different chromosome may have a sequence that ‘spells’ an equally obscure word such as nate Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If a translocation happens, the two sections of gene could merge and produce a new protein, which may be unfortunate.
Investigation of cancer in an adult will inevitably call for many blood tests and genetic analyses, as well as imaging such as X-ray. In many cases these may also indicate cause, although for some the likely cause may be clear, such as tobacco smoking and lung cancer. Many cancer markers can be measured in the blood, such as CA-125 and breast cancer, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in gastrointestinal cancer (Chapter 19). Many of these will be measured in the biochemistry laboratory. However, numerous cancers are associated with nonspecific changes, such as an increased ESR and a normocytic anaemia.
It is presumed that the same reaction may happen in the blood vessels; hence the danger. The same principle of incompatibility also occurs in other systems, such as antibodies to Rh molecules (such as D). Blood components (previously blood products) The blood bank can provide not only red cells, but also platelets and coagulation proteins such as fibrinogen, factor VIII, factor VII, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. The latter will be needed by people at risk of, or with actual haemorrhage (uncontrolled bleeding).
Blood Science: Principles and Pathology by Andrew Blann, Nessar Ahmed