By Jim Morrow

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3. 4. 5. Scatterplot Line chart Histogram Bar chart Pie chart 2. What’s the difference between geom path() and geom polygon()? What’s the difference between geom path() and geom line()? 3. What low-level geoms are used to draw geom smooth()? What about geom boxplot() and geom violin()? 3 Labels Adding text to a plot can be quite tricky. ggplot2 doesn’t have all the answers, but does provide some tools to make your life a little easier. The main tool is geom text(), which adds labels at the specified x and y positions.

2. What does ggplot(mpg, aes(model, manufacturer)) + geom point() show? Is it useful? How could you modify the data to make it more informative? 3. Describe the data, aesthetic mappings and layers used for each of the following plots. You’ll need to guess a little because you haven’t seen all the datasets and functions yet, but use your common sense! See if you can predict what the plot will look like before running the code. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4 Colour, Size, Shape and Other Aesthetic Attributes To add additional variables to a plot, we can use other aesthetics like colour, shape, and size (NB: while I use British spelling throughout this book, ggplot2 also accepts American spellings).

POSIXlt(x)$year + 1900 ggplot(economics, aes(unemploy / pop, uempmed)) + geom_path(colour = "grey50") + geom_point(aes(colour = year(date))) We can see that unemployment rate and length of unemployment are highly correlated, but in recent years the length of unemployment has been increasing relative to the unemployment rate. With longitudinal data, you often want to display multiple time series on each plot, each series representing one individual. To do this you need to map the group aesthetic to a variable encoding the group membership of each observation.

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Cauchy-Binet by Jim Morrow

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