By James Hughes
The sheer scale and brutality of the hostilities among Russia and Chechnya stand out as an exception within the more often than not peaceable breakup of the Soviet Union. Chechnya: From Nationalism to Jihad presents a desirable research of the transformation of secular nationalist resistance in a nominally Islamic society right into a fight that's its antithesis, jihad. Hughes locates Chechen nationalism in the wider move for nationwide self-determination that the cave in of the Soviet empire. while negotiations failed within the early Nineteen Nineties, political violence was once instrumentalized to consolidate opposing nationalist visions of state-building in Russia and Chechnya. The resistance in Chechnya additionally happened in a nearby context the place Russian hegemony over the Caucasus, specifically the assets of the Caspian basin, was once in retreat, and in a global context of emerging Islamic radicalism. along Bosnia, Kashmir, and different conflicts, Chechnya turned embedded in Osama Bin Laden's repertoire of jihadist rhetoric opposed to the "West." It was once now not easily Russia's destruction of a nationalist choice for Chechnya, or "Wahabbist" infiltration from with out, that created the political area for Islamism. quite, we needs to glance additionally at how the clash was once fought. the shortcoming of proportionality and discrimination within the use of violence, fairly by way of Russia, speeded up and intensified the Islamic radicalization and thereby reworked the character of the conflict.
This nuanced and balanced examine offers a much-needed antidote to the mythologizing of Chechen resistance prior to, and its demonization after, Sept. 11. The clash in Chechnya contains essentially the most contentious matters in modern foreign politics—how will we differentiate among the valid use of violence to withstand imperialism, career, and misgovernment, and using terrorism opposed to valid rule? This e-book units out fundamental classes for realizing conflicts related to the unstable mixture of nationalist insurgency, jihad, and terrorism, such a lot particularly for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
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Additional resources for Chechnya: From Nationalism to Jihad
This so-called "eco-nationalism" became the battering ram for nationalists in Ukraine and the Baltic republics to attack the CPSU and demand democratization. 5 1 Similarly, in Chechnya the first significant political mobilization occurred around an environmental issue-protests against the proposed construction of a biochemical plant near the second main city of Chechnya, Gudermes, in 1987-88. 52 Pragmatic and cautious nomenklatura leaders came under increasing pressure from nationalist moderates and radicals, often led by intellectuals and academics, and bankrolled by local business leaders, to accelerate the drive for independence.
Although Russia's titular ethnic republics account for 29 percent of the territory of the federation, this spatial significance is not matched by demographic presence. An important force for territorial cohesion in Russia is the high level and spatial spread of Russian ethnic homogeneity across almost all the federal units. 7 million population. 5 percent) of a population of about 147 million. The multiethnic demographic complexity of Russia was evident from the 1989 USSR census, which identified 101 ethnic groups in the state, probably an underestimate.
According to later reports by officers, including the garrison commander and an emissary of Grachev's, when Dudaev ordered the garrison to withdraw "immediately" from Chechnya on 31 May, the orders from Moscow were for a speedy withdrawal leaving weapons stocks. It later transpired that what was handed Brought to you by | New York University Bobst Library Technical Services Authenticated Download Date | 10/3/15 8:13 PM The Causes of Conflict 27 over to the Chechens was sufficient for a small army.
Chechnya: From Nationalism to Jihad by James Hughes