By Thomas K. Day
Booklet by means of Thomas ok. Day
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Extra info for Clinical Immunology of the Dog and Cat
Low power view of a Peyer’s patch in the small intestine of a dog. The region is unencapsulated and consists of a series of prominent secondary follicles with intervening lymphoid tissue, extending into the superficial lamina propria as ‘dome’ areas. TISSUES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 61 62 63 61–63 Peyer’s patches (61)The Peyer’s patch follicle has a germinal centre of proliferating blast cells and a mantle zone of small lymphocytes. A mixture of cell types (predominantly T cells) will be found in the intervening areas.
Virgin B cells concurrently express SmIgM and SmIgD. The VDJ region of the heavy chain is created by DNA rearrangements and either the μ or the δ C region is added by differential RNA splicing. After activation, the Ig class switch involves a second DNA rearrangement whereby the μ and δ genes are looped out and an alternative C gene is moved up to exchange at the switch region (red). 45 BASIC IMMUNOLOGY 86 stromal cell stem cell pre-B cell apoptosis 86 B cell development. Bone marrow stem cells mature into pre-B cells (cytoplasmic μ chain), most of which die and are engulfed by macrophages.
Histocompatibility antigens are inherited by the laws of mendelian genetics. The maternal and paternal sets of genes (a haplotype) are generally inherited as a block without genetic recombination (77). Studies of the DLA system have revealed differences between breeds in the range of DLA alleles and haplotypes expressed. g. GSD), whereas some breeds have restricted diversity or unique alleles. The degree of polymorphism in DLA class II genes is currently in the order of 31 DLA-DQA1 alleles, 90 DLA-DQB1 alleles and 144 DLA-DRB1 alleles.
Clinical Immunology of the Dog and Cat by Thomas K. Day