By John Rawls
John Rawls's paintings on justice has drawn extra remark and aroused wider recognition than the other paintings in ethical or political philosophy within the 20th century. Rawls is the writer of 2 significant treatises, A thought of Justice (1971) and Political Liberalism (1993); it truly is stated concept of Justice revived political philosophy within the English-speaking global. yet sooner than and after writing his nice treatises Rawls produced a gradual move of essays. a few of these essays articulate perspectives of justice and liberalism particular from these present in the 2 books. they're very important in and of themselves end result of the deep matters in regards to the nature of justice, ethical reasoning, and liberalism they elevate in addition to for the sunshine they shed at the evolution of Rawls's perspectives. a number of the articles take on concerns now not addressed in both publication. they assist determine the various paths open to liberal theorists of justice and a few of the knotty difficulties which liberal theorists needs to search to solve. a whole selection of John Rawls's essays is lengthy late.
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I i6). As to how one decides on the tendency of an action he says: " If we would try the tendency of a specific or individual act, we must not contemplate the act as if it were single and insulated, but most look at the class of acts to which it belongs. We must suppose that acts of the class were generally done or omitted, and consider the probable effect upon the general happiness or good. We must guess the consequences which would follow, if the class of acts were general; and also the consequences which would follow, if they were generally omitted.
London, i872), bk. VI, ch. xii pars. 2, 3, 7. The distinction is fundamental to J. D. , vol. XLVIII (April, 1939). More recently the distinction has been stated with particular emphasis by S. E. Toulmin in The Place of Reasonin Ethics (Cambridge, 1950), see esp. ch. xi, where it plays a major part in his account of moral reasoning. Toulmin doesn't explain the basis of the distinction, nor how one might overlook its importance, as I try to in this paper, and in my review of his book (PhilosophicalReview,vol.
If similar cases didn't recur, one would be required to apply the utilitarian principle directly, case by case, and rules reporting past decisions would be of no use. 2. The decisions made on particular cases are logically prior to rules. Since rules gain their point from the need to apply the utilitarian principle to many similar cases, it follows that a particular case (or several cases similar to it) may exist whether or not there is a rule covering that case. We are pictured as recognizing particular cases prior to there being a rule which covers them, for it is only if we meet with a number of cases of a certain sort that we formulate a rule.
Collected Papers by John Rawls