By John Gardner, Tony Saich, George Schopflin Stephen White
The 3rd version of this article offers a heritage to the politics of China, jap Europe and what was once the Soviet Union. The booklet has been rewritten all through to mirror the emergence of pluralist multi-party structures and non Communist governments are marked.
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Extra resources for Communist Political Systems: An Introduction
The 26 COMMUNIST POLITICAL SYSTEMS Soviet Union and Eastern Europe more particularly are fully covered in Paul S. Shoup, The Eastern European and Soviet Data Handbook. Political, Social and DevelopmentalIndicators 1945-75 (New York, 1981). These may be updated by reference to annual publications such as the Statesman's Yearbook (London), Whitaker's Almanac (London) and the Europa Yearbook (London). , bimonthly), Critique (Glasgow, biannually), and Studies in Comparative Communism (Los Angeles, quarterly).
Vis society, both in regulation and in initiative. In particular, although nowhere in Eastern Europe did a Russiantype patrimonial state develop, the dominance of the state 44 COMMUNIST POLITICAL SYSTEMS was guaranteed by the absence of popular control over the money-raising powers of the ruler (taxation) and over the means of coercion (army and police). The position of the ruler, which by the twentieth century had become the bureaucracy, was based on the doctrine of the discretionary power of the state, derived from the royal prerogative, whereby the state had the right to take action untrammelled by constraints from below.
See also Carl J. ), TotaHtarianism in Perspective (New York and London 1969); Leonard Schapiro, Totalitarianism (London, 1972); and Michael Curtis, Totalitarianism (London, 1979). On modernisation theory, see John H. Kautsky, 'Comparative communism versus comparative politics', Studies in Comparatz"ve Communism VI (1973); Stephen White, 'Communist systems and the "iron law of pluralism" " British Journal of Po Utica I Scz'ence vm (1978); and the same author's Polz"tz"cal Culture and Soviet Politics (London, 1979), ch.
Communist Political Systems: An Introduction by John Gardner, Tony Saich, George Schopflin Stephen White