By C. W. Maris
a. 'Two issues fill the brain with ever new and lengthening admiration and awe, the oftener and the extra progressively we think about them: the starry heavens above and the ethical legislations inside of. ' hence Kant formulates his angle to morality (Critique of sensible cause, p. 260). He attracts a pointy contrast among those gadgets of admiration. The starry sky, he writes, represents my courting to the average, empirical global. ethical legislations, nonetheless, is of a totally diverse order. It ' . . . starts from my invisible self, my character, and indicates me in an international which has real infinity, yet that's traceable in simple terms by way of the certainty and with which I parent that i'm no longer in a only contingent yet in a common and invaluable connection (. . . ). ' (p. 260). So Kant sees morality as a separate metaphysical order against the realm of empirical phenomena. people belong to either worlds. in accordance with Kant, the character derives not anything of worth from its dating with the empirical international. His half within the sensuous global of nature locations guy on a degree with any animal which ahead of lengthy needs to supply again to the remainder of nature the ingredients of which it really is made.
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Additional info for Critique of the Empiricist Explanation of Morality: Is there a Natural Equivalent of Categorical Morality?
Aristotle posits, for instance, that man's essential nature consists of his rational soul. His sensitive soul, on the other hand, is something he has in common with animals, and is therefore of a lower order. Since Aristotle equates good with striving to perfect one's own essential nature, he considers it man's moral duty to be dictated to by reason. 16 This results in the dualistic notion that man belongs to two worlds: as a sensitive phenomenon to the causal world of nature; and as a rational being to the metaphysical realm of morality, validity, and freedom.
The sovereign may not be bound by any norm, as this would destroy his absolute power. Thus a subject may, for instance, invoke a legal rule against his ruler, but only as long as the latter does not resort to his sovereign power. Otherwise there would always be a judge with a higher status than the ruler, which would mean a division of power, which would soon lead to the dissolution of the state society and thence to the natural state. Second; natural laws have limited binding force over subjects.
Naturalistic legal positivism completely disregards the experience of legal consciousness, because such objective norms are considered to be metaphysical fictions. The Scandinavian Realists reject both views. Together with the legal positivists, they think that the legal consciousness does not reflect objective knowledge. behaviour. This experience can be psychologically and sociologically explained. It is the expression of a certain attitude. In the light of this, both factual official law on the one hand, and legal consciousness on the other, belong to the empirical world.
Critique of the Empiricist Explanation of Morality: Is there a Natural Equivalent of Categorical Morality? by C. W. Maris