By Saad Eddin Ibrahim
Those essays by way of one in every of Egypt's such a lot influential intellectuals offer a desirable point of view at the political, spiritual, fiscal, and social problems with modern Egypt. Written over a interval of fifteen years, the essays disguise quite a number themes together with civil society and the clients for democratization in Egypt and the quarter, the city sociology of Cairo, the advance of Egypt's landed bourgeoisie, structural adjustment and the methods of monetary liberalization, and the complexities of ethnic conflicts and minorities within the Arab international. a couple of essays tackle diversified elements of Islamic activism in Egypt: the formation, club, and actions of activist teams and their philosophies, political and social roles, and ideological kinfolk with the West. Written at quite a few issues within the glossy historical past of Islamic activism, democratic reform, and financial and social liberalization, those essays replicate the procedures of switch and continuity within the sociopolitical improvement of present-day Egypt, whereas a brand new postscript written via the writer in 2001 brings the tale into standpoint at first of the twenty-first century.
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Additional info for Egypt, Islam, and Democracy: Critical Essays, With a New Postscript
The educational and occupational attainment of the members themselves was decidedly higher than that of their parents. All but five (twenty-nine out of thirty-four) were university graduates or university students who were enrolled in college at the time of their arrest. The rest were secondary school educated. Occupationally, only sixteen (47 percent) of the members were classifiable, the rest being students. Most of these were professionals (twelve out of sixteen) employed by the government: five teachers, three engineers, two doctors, and two agronomists.
By the time they were to move on to the Arab Socialist Union building to carry out the second part of the plan, the authorities had 32 38. 39. 40. 41. ANATOMY OF EGYPT'S MILITANT ISLAMIC GROUPS already acted on the information and had started a siege and a counterattack on the academy, al-Gurnhuriya, 2 1 April 1974. A typical example of this was reported in al-Ahram, 1 April 1980, quoting the minister of the interior's account to the People's Assembly of a student conference that began in a mosque in Asyut, then was converted into a march across the city protesting Sadat's invitation to the Shah to reside in Egypt and also protesting the peace treaty with Israel.
Thus while the MA showdown with the regime followed logically from its strategy, the RHF confrontation did not. In other words, MA timed its move and planned a coup d'ktat in April 1974. But RHF, when it clashed with the regime in July 1977, had no such intention in mind. 35They 22 ANATOMY OF EGYPT'S MILITANT ISLAMIC GROUPS had barely begun. It is safe to accept RHF's explanation that their move in July 1977 was basically a tactical one forced on them by the regime. As they tell the story, the security forces arrested several of their brothers and detained them without trial, thus going far beyond what the law allows.
Egypt, Islam, and Democracy: Critical Essays, With a New Postscript by Saad Eddin Ibrahim