By Maciej Nowicki
than 6,000 hectares of arable land flip the second one half the 20th century will move into background as an epoch that observed nice irreversibly into wilderness (Tolba, 1992). over the last 30 years, human job acceleration in technological improvement, the beginning of electronics, the 1st area flights, and has created new deserts in Africa and Asia overlaying components as huge as Saudi Arabia. evolutionary advancements in details sci ence, transportation and fabrics technol extensive exploitation of the land has ended in sped up erosion of the simplest soils, and the ogies. speedy business improvement spurred an important raise in gross product on strategy is intensifying in elements of India, China, Russia, Ukraine and the U.S.. with out a worldwide scale. among 1950 and 1990 the worldwide inhabitants doubled, yet gross product pressing remedial motion those tendencies could lead on to accomplish impoverishment of those components in elevated fivefold and its worth sevenfold (Brown, 1991). the many years forward (Brown, 1984).
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Additional info for Environment in Poland: Issues and Solutions
Hence, in the West many firms specializing in energy audits have emerged in recent years. Their reports permit elimination of much of the loss in the most effective way and with minimum investment. Such firms have already appeared in Poland. Now, under a World Bank loan for a project aimed at improving strategies of environmental management, a thorough training programme is being conducted for Polish specialists in the field of energy audits. The 52 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE POLISH ECONOMY greatest potential is still in the technologies themselves.
Income as a measure of development Thus far used as the main criterion of economic growth, national income is increasingly regarded as an outdated measure of social development because it does not include the elements of social activity that do not yield a profit but do improve the standard of living. The economic optimum does not at all correspond to peak national income. Garret Hadin writes (Brown, 1991) that maximizing GNP makes as little sense for a politician as maximizing the number of notes in a symphony does for a composer.
0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Figure 17. World market prices of photovoltaic cells, wind turbines and solar energy collectors 1980-2010. (Weinberg and Williams, 1990). [With the permission of the authors) . all fuels and has potential for universal application . It is also completely clean environmentally. Comprehensive assessment of energy costs Increasingly often the issue of energy generation costs is being treated in a comprehensive way, taking into account the damage that emission of pollutants inflicts on the environment and hence the economy, the so-called social costs.
Environment in Poland: Issues and Solutions by Maciej Nowicki