By J. P. Lotsy (auth.)

ISBN-10: 9401183813

ISBN-13: 9789401183819

ISBN-10: 9401190720

ISBN-13: 9789401190725

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The problem of Evolution is not, primarily, as is almost generaUy believed, the problem of the origin of species, but is the problem of the origin of all those INDIVIDUALS of different constitution, which people the earth. Of some of these individuals we can make c1ear-cut definable groups, by uniting those monogametic individuals which are constitutionaUy identical, to groups which we may caU species, and explain how such speeies can arise. But when we find, as we do, that such species are very rare in nature, we recognize that the problem set to the evolutionist is not limited to the origin of these pure species which are but rarely or never met with in nature, but embraces the problem of that vastly greater number of impure individuals by which the earth is peopled.

That the supposed mutant, crossed with thespeeies from which it arose, does not behave as a recessive, but either dominates in the homogeneous and identical, reciprocal F 1 generations, or shows in such Fls, characters intermediate between those of the original speeies and the mutant; furthermore that the mutant and the form from which it arose reappear in the uncontaminated F •. generation, either in the proportion 3 : 1 or in the proportion 1 mutant: 2 intermediates : 1 original form. This must be at present the test required because, so only, it can be proved that a homozygous individual can become heterozygous by itself, in other words can mutate.

These we will indicate as modifications. TUE EVOLUTION OF LIVING BEINGS. 27 We thus get the following definitions: LIN NEON: to replace the term species in the Linnean sense, and to designate a group of individuals which resemble one another more than they do any other individuals. To establish a Linneon consequently requires careful morphological comparison only. JORDANON: to replace theterm species in the Jordanian sense, viz: mikrospecies, elementary species etc. and to designate a group of externally alike individuals which alt propagate their kind faithfully, under conditions excluding contamination by crossing with individuals belonging to other groups, as far as these externat characters are concerned, with the only exception of noninheritable modifications of these characters, caused by the influences of the surroundings in the widest sense, to which these individuals or those composing the progeny may be exposed.

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Evolution by Means of Hybridization by J. P. Lotsy (auth.)


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