By Stephen C. Stearns, Jacob C. Koella
During this absolutely revised and up-to-date variation, the editors have built-in a very new set of contributions from the prime researchers within the box to explain the newest examine in evolutionary drugs, offering a clean precis of this swiftly increasing box 10 years after its predecessor used to be first compiled. It keeps to undertake a vast method of the topic, drawing on medically proper learn from evolutionary genetics, human behavioral ecology, evolutionary microbiology (especially experimental evolution of virulence and resistance), the evolution of getting older and degenerative disorder, and different features of biology or drugs the place evolutionary techniques make very important contributions. Evolution in wellbeing and fitness and disorder describes how evolutionary considering offers useful insights and clean views into human healthiness and sickness, setting up evolutionary biology as an important complementary technological know-how for medication. Integrating evolutionary idea into scientific learn and perform is helping to give an explanation for the origins of many health conditions, together with diabetes, weight problems, heart problems, bronchial asthma, asthma, different autoimmune illnesses, and getting older. It additionally offers life-saving insights into the evolutionary responses of pathogens to antibiotics, vaccinations, and different human interventions. Why can we get older? How will we remain fit as we age? The e-book discusses those and lots of different interesting questions, in addition to suggesting fascinating chances for destiny remedy and learn. This learn point textual content is acceptable for graduate point scholars and researchers within the fields of evolutionary (Darwinian) drugs, evolutionary biology, anthropology, developmental biology and genetics. it's going to even be of relevance and use to clinical researchers and medical professionals.
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Extra resources for Evolution in Health and Disease (2nd Edition)
The deadliest is P. falciparum. Malaria and human gene evolution Malaria has been a major determinant in the evolution of several human genes, especially those involved in the constitution of red blood cells. It has in fact been suggested that malaria was (and still is) one of the most powerful forces of selection operating on humans. 7 million deaths each year, primarily of children under the age of five years (Phillips 2001), and as such still has a major impact on human fitness in many populations.
While genetic drift and demographic history have also been important in shaping their patterns of diversity, we argue that selection exerted by local pathogen communities has influenced the local evolution of these human genes. 23 Pathogen distribution and human genetic evolution: the case of sickle cell disease Hemoglobin and sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease is caused by a change in the hemoglobin protein (Pauling et al. 1949). Individuals with two copies of the Hb S variant of the ␤-globin (homozygous Hb SS) develop stiff, distorted red blood cells that have difficulty passing through the body’s blood capillaries.
Third, how has geographical variation in the distribution and diversity of infectious disease shaped the distribution of life-history traits observed in current human populations? We argue that while the emergence of new diseases has been a recurrent pattern since the origin of hominids, with the new emerging pathogens we now face an important epidemiological transition that potentially influences human adaptation and survival. In particular, global trade and transcontinental economic exchange and transport will considerably alter the occurrence and distribution of human infectious diseases and thus the selection they exert on humans.
Evolution in Health and Disease (2nd Edition) by Stephen C. Stearns, Jacob C. Koella