By Pfennig, David William; Pfennig, Karin Susan

ISBN-10: 0520274180

ISBN-13: 9780520274181

ISBN-10: 0520954041

ISBN-13: 9780520954045

ISBN-10: 128358414X

ISBN-13: 9781283584142

Evolutionary biology has lengthy sought to give an explanation for how new qualities and new species come up. Darwin maintained that festival is vital to knowing this biodiversity and held that choice appearing to reduce pageant explanations rivals to develop into more and more diverse, thereby selling new qualities and new species. regardless of Darwin’s emphasis, competition’s function in diversification is still debatable and principally underappreciated.

In their artificial and provocative e-book, evolutionary ecologists David and Karin Pfennig discover competition's function in producing and holding biodiversity. The authors speak about how choice can decrease source festival or expensive reproductive interactions via selling trait evolution via a procedure often called personality displacement. They additional describe personality displacement’s underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. The authors then examine personality displacement’s myriad downstream results, starting from shaping ecological groups to selling new qualities and new species or even fueling large-scale evolutionary developments. Drawing on a variety of reports from ordinary populations, and written for a extensive viewers, Evolution’s Wedge seeks to encourage destiny study into personality displacement’s many implications for ecology and evolution.

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Example text

One such interaction is “intraguild predation,” which occurs when species that share common resources also prey on each other (Polis et al. 1989; Holt and Polis 1997). Intraguild predation is common in nature (Polis et al. 1989), and it may generate a pattern of exaggerated differences between sympatric species that could be mistaken for character displacement. Specifically, if members of one species are most likely to prey on heterospecifics that are the most phenotypically similar to them (as might occur in many species; see Pfennig 2000a), then the two species might come to differ more in sympatry than in allopatry (Holt and Polis 1997).

2. Suggestions for Future Research . Identify the various agents of selection (other than competition) that can generate patterns that could be mistaken for character displacement. Devise approaches for discriminating between these agents and competition as causing similar forms of trait evolution (for example, see MacColl 2011). Conduct field experiments to determine whether naturally occurring populations undergo character displacement in direct response to the experimental introduction of a heterospecific competitor (that is, attempt to observe character displacement unfold directly in field experiments).

3 −1500 −1000 −500 0 500 1000 1500 Dissimilarity between tankmates in resource use (Difference [S. multiplicata – S. 6. 3 competitor in resource use. 2 spadefoot toad tadpoles, S. bombifrons, for anostracan fairy shrimp, and both species exhibit heritable variation in how quickly they can eat these shrimp.

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Evolution's wedge : competition and the origins of diversity by Pfennig, David William; Pfennig, Karin Susan

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