By David W. Pfennig, Karin S. Pfennig
Evolutionary biology has lengthy sought to provide an explanation for how new features and new species come up. Darwin maintained that festival is essential to realizing this biodiversity and held that choice appearing to reduce pageant factors rivals to develop into more and more assorted, thereby selling new qualities and new species. regardless of Darwin’s emphasis, competition’s position in diversification continues to be debatable and mostly underappreciated.
In their man made and provocative e-book, evolutionary ecologists David and Karin Pfennig discover competition's function in producing and preserving biodiversity. The authors speak about how choice can decrease source festival or expensive reproductive interactions via selling trait evolution via a method referred to as personality displacement. They additional describe personality displacement’s underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. The authors then think about personality displacement’s myriad downstream results, starting from shaping ecological groups to selling new features and new species or even fueling large-scale evolutionary developments. Drawing on quite a few experiences from average populations, and written for a wide viewers, Evolution’s Wedge seeks to encourage destiny study into personality displacement’s many implications for ecology and evolution.
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Additional resources for Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity (Organisms and Environments)
Yet, as we stressed above, patterns of trait divergence can be generated via processes other than selection to avoid interactions with competitors. As we noted above, apparent competition, for example, could cause reproductive trait divergence between sympatry and allopatry. Defining reproductive character displacement in terms of process, rather than pattern, therefore has the same benefit that a process-oriented definition has for ecological character displacement: researchers can focus specifically on the ecological and evolutionary implications of competitive interactions between species driving reproductive trait divergence.
2. Gause’s (1934) classic experiments with Paramecium demonstrated competitive exclusion and coexistence. (A) When reared alone, P. caudatum each grew until each species reached its stable carrying capacity. (C) By contrast, when these same two species were reared together, only one species, P. aurelia, achieved its stable carrying capacity; the other species, P. caudatum, was driven to extinction. (D) However, when P. caudatum (the species driven to extinction in panel C) was reared with another species, P.
TERMINOLOGY Above, we emphasized the need to distinguish between character displacement and the patterns that potentially arise from it. 1. 1 Figure 1A). Here we discuss three alternative manifestations of character displacement. 1 Figure 1B). For instance, species that compete for shared resources may evolve different resource-acquisition traits such that each utilizes a more restrictive range of resources in sympatry. Similarly, females may become more discriminating in their choice of mate. In other words, there might be a shift in trait variance but not a shift in trait mean (as would be the case when there is divergence between species).
Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity (Organisms and Environments) by David W. Pfennig, Karin S. Pfennig