By Ralph Armbruster-Sandoval
This booklet describes how staff, unions and NGOs from 4 principal American countries--Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua--fought again and struggled for social justice along US-based unions and NGOs.
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Additional resources for Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Solidarity in the Americas: The Anti-Sweatshop Movement and the Struggle for Social Justice
Consumer market. C. 41 Widespread violence limited the emergence of the maquiladora industry in the early 1980s. 42 Over the next few years, as political conditions shifted, the industry exploded. In 1992, there were 250 maquila factories. S. S. 4 percent of the region’s production. 48 The vast majority of these factories are located in Guatemala City, San Pedro Sacatepéquez, Mixco, and Chimaltenango. 50 Maquila workers typically work more than fifty hours a week. Wages vary widely, ranging from fifty to ninety cents an hour.
The code also states that if a union represents more than 25 percent of all workers within a particular factory or workplace, then the employer, after it has been properly notified, must begin contract negotiations. These “low-threshold” provisions indirectly facilitated the establishment of nearly twenty labor unions in the maquiladora industry in the 1980s and 1990s. These organizations were very small. 56 The situation facing maquila workers today is extremely bleak. 57 Previously established unions were eliminated through fear, firing, and intimidation.
In the Kukdong case, the company’s workers and transnational advocacy network confronted four targets—Kukdong, the CROC, colleges and universities, and the two suppliers (Nike and Reebok). The TAN had leverage over the latter two, but not over the former two. How was this situation addressed? Keck and Sikkink implicitly suggest that since domestic non-state actors encounter resistance within the context of their own nation-state, the TAN is the “primary” agent of social change. ” Based on this framework, domestic non-state actors have very little agency.
Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Solidarity in the Americas: The Anti-Sweatshop Movement and the Struggle for Social Justice by Ralph Armbruster-Sandoval