By Simon McCarthy-Jones
The meanings and motives of listening to voices that others can't pay attention (auditory verbal hallucinations, in psychiatric parlance) were debated for hundreds of thousands of years. Voice-hearing has been either respected and condemned, understood as a symptom of sickness in addition to a resource of otherworldly communique. these listening to voices were considered as mystics, power psychiatric sufferers or just simply individuals with strange reports, and feature been beatified, esteemed or accredited, in addition to drugged, burnt or gassed. This booklet travels from voice-hearing within the historic international via to modern event, reading how energy, politics, gender, drugs and faith have formed the which means of listening to voices. Who hears voices this present day, what those voices are like and their power effect are comprehensively tested. leading edge neuroscience is built-in with present mental theories to contemplate what can cause voices and the way forward for examine in voice-hearing is explored.
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The meanings and reasons of listening to voices that others can't listen (auditory verbal hallucinations, in psychiatric parlance) were debated for millions of years. Voice-hearing has been either respected and condemned, understood as a symptom of sickness in addition to a resource of otherworldly conversation.
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Additional info for Hearing Voices: The Histories, Causes and Meanings of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations
Underhill refers to such voices as a ‘distinct interior voice’ (Underhill, 1911), which speaks in clear words but is recognised as being inside the mind. Finally, in spiritual/intellectual locutions there was no sound or voice at all. A voice is heard, but without any sound or words. A voice is imprinted into the spirit, not in a sensory way, but in a direct intellectual way (Finnis, 1998). Underhill refers to this as an ‘inarticulate voice’ (1911) which leaves more of an impression than definite words.
An intrinsic local motion in the head and cells of the brain’ (p. 50). This motion could also be caused by devils when individuals were awake, with such beings able to ‘stir up and excite the inner perceptions and humours, so that ideas retained in the repositories of their minds are drawn out and made apparent to the faculties of fancy and imagination, so that such men imagine these things to be true’. ). The devils may have been supernatural entities, but they worked through natural causes. Like the discernment literature in the previous century, one of the main aims of demonology was to establish whether experiences such as voices had supernatural or natural origins (Clark, 1999).
Disease was not punishment from the Gods (Simon, 2008). The brain was placed at the centre of this model. Hippocrates wrote that ‘Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter, and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears’ (Hippocrates, as cited in Porter, 2002). Similarly, Galen was later to write: ‘Do not go to the gods . . but go and take instruction on the subject from an anatomist’ (Galen, as cited in Peterson, 1982). In addition to biology, Hippocrates and his colleagues still stressed the relevance of a person’s biography and the social environment in the development of mental disease.
Hearing Voices: The Histories, Causes and Meanings of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations by Simon McCarthy-Jones