By Johan Galtung, Dietrich Fischer
This is the 1st ever anthology of key articles by way of Johan Galtung, commonly considered as the founding father of the tutorial self-discipline of peace reviews. It covers such strategies as direct, structural and cultural violence; theories of clash, improvement, civilization and peace; peaceable clash transformation; peace schooling; mediation; reconciliation; a life-sustaining financial system; macro-history; deep tradition and deep constitution; and social technology method. Galtung has contributed unique learn, thoughts and theories to greater than 20 social technological know-how disciplines, together with sociology, diplomacy and destiny stories, and has additionally utilized his new insights in perform. The booklet is a important source for researchers and practitioners, and will function a supplemental textbook for graduate and top undergraduate classes in peace reviews and comparable fields.
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Additional resources for Johan Galtung: Pioneer of Peace Research
For the types of alienation read spiritual death. For ‘repression’ read gulag. For ‘ecological degradation’ read ecocide. The words would sound like someone’s effort to be apocalyptic were it not for the fact that we have experienced all of this during the last 50 years alone; closely associated with the names of 5 See my chapter ‘‘Basic Human Needs’’, in: Lederer, Antal, Galtung, Basic Needs: A Contribution to the Current Debate (Königstein: Hahn 1980). 7 In short, violence studies, an indispensable part of peace studies, may be a horror cabinet, but like pathology reflects a reality to be understood.
Gandhian economic boycott, however, combined refusal to buy English textiles with the collection of funds for the merchants precisely not to confuse the key issue by threatening their livelihood. The category of ‘repression’ has a double definition, the ‘freedom from’ and the ‘freedom to’ of the International Bill of Human Rights. Two categories have been added as concomitants of other types of violence: detention, locking people in (prisons and concentration camps) and expulsion, meaning locking people out (banishing them abroad, or to distant parts of the country).
But ‘war’ is only a particular form of orchestrated violence, usually with at least one actor being a government. To see peace merely as the opposite of war, and limit peace studies to war avoidance studies, and more particularly to avoidance of big wars or super-wars (defined as wars between big powers or super-powers), and even more particularly to the limitation, abolition, or control of super-weapons, is rather narrow. 1 A typology of insults to needs due to violence Survival Wellness Direct violence Structural violence Source The author Killing Maiming Siege Sanctions Exploitation A Freedom Identity Illness Misery Repression Detention Expulsion Exploitation B Fragmentation Marginalization Alienation Desocialize 2nd class Citizenship Penetration Segmentation 3 Violence: Direct, Structural and Cultural 37 Important interconnections among types of violence are left out, particularly the way in which one type of violence may be reduced or controlled at the expense of maintaining or even increasing an other.
Johan Galtung: Pioneer of Peace Research by Johan Galtung, Dietrich Fischer