By hazen, Papineal, Blekker

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Another major development was the evolution of placental mammals around 114 million years ago, as contrasted with egglaying nonplacentals. In placental mammals, the fetus attaches to the mother inside her uterus through a placenta, which allows the direct delivery of nutrients. 0 my a Hominids spread to Europe 800 thousand years ago (kya) Crude stone tool kit-found in Spain, linked with Homo antecessor 600-400 kya Long crafted wooden spears and early hearths; linked with Homo heidelbergensis found in Germany 500-100 kya Period of most rapid brain expansion in Homo line 200-30 kya Neanderthals flourish in Europe and western Asia 150--120 kya Common ancestor for all modem humans (Africa) 100-50 kya Exodus from Africa-second major migration ["Out of Africa"] 50-35 kya Explosion of diverse stone tools, bone tools, blade tools, well-designed fireplaces, elaborate art; found only among Homo sapiens, not among Neanderthals 40-35 kya Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnons) arrive in Europe 30kya Neanderthals go extinct 27 kya-present Homo sapiens colonize entire planet; all other hominid species are now extinct Note: These dates are based in part on infonnation from a variety of sources, including Johanson & Edgar (1996), Klein (2000), Lewin (1993), Tattersall (2000), Wrangham, Jones, Laden, Pilbeam, & Conklin-Brittain (1999), and the references contained therein.

Instincts were not always blind, nor were they inevitably expressed. They could be modified by experience or overridden by other instincts. In fact, said James, we possess many instincts that contradict each other and so cannot always be expressed. For example, we have sexual desire but also can be coy, are curious but also timid, aggressive but also cooperative. Undoubtedly the most controversial part of James's theory was his list of instincts. Most psychologists of the day believed, like Freud, that instincts were few in number.

Any reinforcer could follow any behavior and learning would occur equally in all cases. Thus any behavior could be shaped as easily as any other behavior merely by manipulating the contingencies of reinforcement. Although not all behaviorists endorsed all of these principles, the fundamental assumptions-few innate qualities, the general ability to learn, and the power of environmental contingencies of reinforcement-dominated the field of psychology for more than half a century (Herrnstein, 1977).

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Mineral evolution by hazen, Papineal, Blekker


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