By Masatoshi Nei
The aim of this e-book is to give a brand new mechanistic concept of mutation-driven evolution in line with contemporary advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. the idea asserts, possibly just a little controversially, that the motive force at the back of evolution is mutation, with common choice being of in simple terms secondary value. The note 'mutation' is used to explain any form of swap in DNA resembling nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal swap, and genome duplication. a quick background of the significant evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the speculation of mutation-driven evolution can also be awarded within the context of the final one hundred fifty years of analysis. in spite of the fact that, the middle of the e-book is anxious with contemporary stories of genomics and the molecular foundation of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. not like neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is able to explaining genuine examples of evolution equivalent to the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the final scheme of hybrid sterility. during this experience the idea proposed is extra sensible than its predecessors, and provides a extra logical rationalization of assorted evolutionary events.
Mutation-Driven Evolution is acceptable for graduate point scholars in addition to specialist researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) within the fields of molecular evolution and inhabitants genetics. It assumes that the readers are conversant in uncomplicated wisdom of genetics and molecular biology.
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Extra resources for Mutation-Driven Evolution
However, if A2 is completely recessive to allele A1 with h = 0, yˆ becomes yˆ = u / s . 01. Many early Mendelians detected low frequency unfavorable mutations. One example is the recessive gene controlling albinos in humans. 007. 02, depending on the population and the gene studied (Haldane 1957; McKusick 1986). The frequencies of these mutations are higher than the average mutation rate of 10–5 per generation. Balanced Polymorphism It has long been known that a species often contains different morphological and physiological types (polymorphisms).
Therefore, Miura et al. concluded that the frequency distribution of mutant nucleotides can be explained by the neutral mutation model and there is no need to consider fluctuating selection in the present case. A similar conclusion was obtained by analysis of DNA sequence data for about 4000 genomes from an African American population (Miura et al. unpublished). In the past there have been rather strong debates between the supporters of the two different models of fluctuating selection (Nei and Yokoyama 1976; Takahata and Kimura 1979; Gillespie 1980, 1991; Nei 1980a), because there were no empirical data to test the two hypotheses.
Temporal changes of environmental factors also make it difficult to estimate genotype fitnesses accurately. For this reason, a number of investigators initiated the study of natural selection in artificially controlled populations such as chemostat populations 21 of bacteria and cage populations of Drosophila. The most well-known example is the experiment conducted by Dobzhansky and his colleagues with respect to inversion polymorphism in Drosophila species. When Sturtevant and Dobzhansky (1936) first discovered the polymorphism of inversion chromosomes in Drosophila pseudoobscura, they postulated, following Darwin’s (1859) idea, that it represents a case of neutral polymorphism.
Mutation-Driven Evolution by Masatoshi Nei