By Francisco Aboitiz Dr., Juan Montiel Dr. (auth.)
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Additional resources for Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Telencephalon, with Special Reference to the Mammalian Neocortex
On the other hand, the isocortex projects to many other brain regions in the brainstem and spinal cord, and does not project to the hypothalamus. These authors claim that fewer changes in connectivity are required by assuming homology between the lateral amygdala of mammals and the DVR of reptiles than by considering homology between the isocortex and the DVR. An additional difference between sauropsids and mammals is that the corpus striatum receives its major projection from the ADVR and from the isocortex, respectively.
For example, in amphibians the major striatal input comes from the dorsal thalamus, but in reptiles and birds it comes from a structure termed the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR). In mammals, this input comes mainly from the neocortex (Guirado et al. 2000; Parent and Hazrati 1995a,b). In addition, some authors have described in mammals an emphasis of projections from the basal ganglia to the dorsal thalamus, which in turn projects to the neocortex (Brauth 1990; Medina and Reiner 1995). Perhaps this has some relation to the loss Evolution of the Telencephalon in Vertebrates 29 of the pretectal pathway from the basal ganglia to the optic tectum (in mammals, the optic tectum is signiﬁcantly reduced in relative size) and may be concomitant with the development of the mammalian corticospinal tract.
The development of auditory projections into the neocortex was likely an important factor in the expansion of the latter and may have contributed to enhanced hearing (Aboitiz et al. 2003c). In this context, the mammalian auditory cortex contains binaural cells, many of which are interconnected interhemispherically by ﬁbers of the corpus callosum (Pallas 2001) and may participate in spatial localization of sounds. On the other hand, the DVR of birds and reptiles has few or no interhemispheric connections, which may limit telencephalic auditory spatial processing in these animals.
Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Telencephalon, with Special Reference to the Mammalian Neocortex by Francisco Aboitiz Dr., Juan Montiel Dr. (auth.)