By Prof.Dr. Raymond Enay (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3540538917

ISBN-13: 9783540538912

ISBN-10: 3642765483

ISBN-13: 9783642765483

How may lifestyles have begun on the earth and the way did it continue? After a quick dialogue at the foundation of lifestyles on the earth and the starting place of the most important physique plans the invertebrates are provided within the order of accelerating complexity via the main major fossil representatives. In each one case, the adaptive value of the respective types and/or buildings which kind of profoundly replaced the unique physique plan is handled intimately. within the final bankruptcy, a few common elements of invertebrates in evolution and palaeoecology, palaeobiogeography and biochronology are outlined.

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Amongst the Rangeidae of Namibia, which might represent different environments or ages. 3 Palaeoecological Significance Certain localities, and especially Ediacara itself, where the conditions of deposition and fossilization have been studied in detail, represent deposits of fossil beaches or zones close to shores onto which the organisms had been washed by tides. Here we find forms from rather diverse habitats and exhibiting different modes of feeding. The organisms were either benthic, sessile or vagile, detritivore epi- or endobiontic, suspensivore or planktivore, living on the sea floor, within the ocean mass, or close to its surface.

1 a' •~•.. • • ~ ~• Diploblastic Metazoans: Porifera and Archaeocyatheans 40 supporting the ectosome. The pedicular skeleton developed by some species is made up of extended desms (Fig. 2C). Starting during the Cambrian, the lithistids became abundant from the Ordovician onwards (Aulacopium, Astylospongia; Fig. 3) and very abundant during the Cretaceous (Siphonia, Jerea; Fig. 3). In modern seas they occur worldwide in warm, relatively shallow waters, but are less numerous than the hexactinellids.

The other elements in the intervallum seal off increasingly smaller areas; however, these remain connected to each other. These structures may correspond to expansions to the outside or into the internal cavity. The latter is usually free of skeletal elements, which may, however, be present in the lower, imperforate portion of the cone. The microstructure of these elements results from a secretion mechanism which is different from, and less evolved than, that of the sponges and corals. The elements are made up of a mosaic of small calcite grains with no preferred mineralogical arrangement and sometimes exhibiting faint growth banding.

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Palaeontology of Invertebrates by Prof.Dr. Raymond Enay (auth.)


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