By C L Gyles; et al
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Extra info for Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals
Continuing interaction of a modified phagosome with the endoplasmic reticulum is reminiscent of mechanisms used by Legionella. Establishment and/or maintenance of a favourable phagosomal environment are dependent on the function of the VirB protein in a type IV secretion system (Celli et al. 2003). Intracellular Persistence in Activated Macrophages Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives within macrophages following phagocytosis, by inhibiting phagolysosomal fusion. However, survival is more difficult within macrophages that have been acti- vated by IFN-γ produced by pathogen-specific T cells.
Thus, these bacterial proteins inhibit binding of IgA-complexed antigens to receptors on phagocytes, and prevent uptake and killing. Formation of Biofilms The formation of biofilms by bacteria affects their metabolic activities and physical–chemical characteristics. Cerca et al. (2006) have reported excessive production of extracellular bacterial antigens in biofilm matrix by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Although antibodies could penetrate the biofilm, phagocytosis and killing of bacteria were impaired.
2001. An abundance of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases—implications for the origin of exotoxins and their human homologues. Trends Microbiol. 9:302–307. Pier, G. , M. Grout, M. Zaidi, T. et al. 1998. Salmonella typhi uses CFTR to enter intestinal epithelial cells. Nature 393:79–82. , J. Parkhill, and D. J. Maskill. 2004. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:379–390. , H. L. Andrews, R. A. Kingsley, R. Prager, H. Tschäpe, L. G. Adams, et al. 2002. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and its host-adapted variants.
Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals by C L Gyles; et al