By Sandi E. Cooper
Regardless of the liberalized reconfiguration of civil society and political perform in nineteenth-century Europe, the best to make international coverage, devise alliances, salary battle and negotiate peace remained basically an government prerogative. Citizen demanding situations to the workout of this energy grew slowly. Drawn from the informed heart periods, peace activists maintained that Europe was once a unmarried tradition regardless of nationwide animosities; that Europe wanted rational inter-state relationships to prevent disaster; and that internationalism was once the logical outgrowth of the countryside, now not its subversion. during this e-book, Cooper explores the arguments of those "patriotic pacifists" with emphasis at the extraordinary overseas peace flow that grew among 1889 and 1914. whereas the 1st global battle printed the restrictions and dilemmas of patriotic pacifism, the form, if no longer substance, of many twentieth-century overseas associations was once prefigured in nineteenth-century continental pacifism.
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Additional info for Patriotic Pacifism: Waging War on War in Europe, 1815-1914
An open meeting of two thousand at Exeter Hall (London) closed the congress. The organizers of the peace congress thought of it as a great success but had no plans to repeat the exercise. Only after the American "learned blacksmith," Elihu Burritt, arrived in Britain in 1846 was another peace congress initiated. Burritt wanted Paris, but the 1848 revolution forced a move to Brussels, where Auguste Visschers agreed to help organize a meeting. 54 The Second International Peace Congress, which sat in September 1848, followed an agenda shaped by liberal political economics, especially free trade formulations.
During the 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s—with the remarkable exception in 1867-1871—a few, hardy, isolated campaigners struggled against ridicule and indifference. The volcanic political terrain following the revolutions and counterrevolutions of 1849-1851 drove peace from the agendas of many potential supporters. When Louis-Napoleon, president of the Second Republic, precipitated the coup d'etat in December 1851 and declared the Second Empire, the most influential Continental contingent, French liberals, abandoned the peace cause for more immediate issues.
An angry Gustave de Molinari registered his vigorous protest against any and all socialist resolutions. By the end of the second day, the meeting was assured its place in history as the most tumultuous and nearly violent peace congress in the entire history of the movement. On day three, Geneva was covered with posters attacking Garibaldi, who had departed suddenly. ) Moderate voices, notably those of the Swiss politicians James Fazy and Pierre Jolissaint, tried to reestablish order, but angered citizens, armed with pikes, broke in.
Patriotic Pacifism: Waging War on War in Europe, 1815-1914 by Sandi E. Cooper